CLIMENHAGA: Whence Comest Thou?


I begin this post by acknowledging that I am not a Climenhag-with-an-a. I am, instead, a Climenhag-with-an-e. Contrary to the opinion of some, neither spelling is true or correct, each having evolved from the German surname Kleimenhagen and its Anglicized form of Climenhagen.

It seems obvious how we arrived at the Climenhage spelling—drop the ‘n’ and voila! But how is it that some of us inherited the Climenhag-with-an-a-spelling? Well, it’s a mystery actually. And, to be honest, I don’t have the answer—at least not a clear answer. Still, to me the question deserves some attempt at an explanation. As such, it’s my theory that the Climenhaga spelling is due to a clerical error—a mistake. Now, you may be thinking that’s just the kind of thing a Climenhage would say. Although that might be true, and before you take up your torches and pitchforks (or at the very least unfriend me on Facebook), hear me out.

Henry Climenhagen, this family’s common ancestor, came to Canada from Germany, by way of Pennsylvania, and settled in Bertie Township, in what would later become Ontario. Not long after his arrival he died leaving behind a wife and five children. Henry’s oldest child was twelve at the time of his death, and Henry had no German relatives in Upper Canada. It stands to reason that no one living in that part of the world knew the true and correct spelling of Henry’s ‘Kleimenhagen’ surname. The only thing his descendants had to go on were a few documents—and at least one of those documents misspelled his name Klimenhaga.

The document in question is the receipt issued by the Receiver General’s Office on February 2nd, 1805 in response to the Upper Canada Land Petition of Henry Clymenhagen, granting him 200 acres in Willoughby Township. Unfortunately, Henry’s copy of this receipt has been lost with time. The one that appears below comes from the Archives of Ontario.[1] It is also believed that the land grant itself had misspelled Henry’s surname. This document at present is also lost–all that remains is the wax seal that accompanied the document.

“Henry Klimenhaga has paid into this Office £3.5.2 for a Grant of 200 Acres ordered him in Council OR on 25 July 1797 The Surveying fees if any to be paid at the Surveyor Generals office [Signed] Peter Russell RGUC To The Clerk of E Council”

Peter Russell, Esquire, Receiver General of Upper Canada.
Peter Russell, Esquire, Receiver General of Upper Canada.

The land grant and receipt were issued by Peter Russell, Receiver General of Upper Canada. Russell appears to have misread Henry’s signature on the original land grant petition (shown below), and wrote Klimenhaga instead of Kleimenhagen. It is interesting to note that, in 1805, Russell had a lot on his mind. Through a number of debacles his influence, as well as his position, was greatly diminished. Although he desired to return home to England he could not raise the necessary capital. Therefore, he was forced to remain in York, “tired, sick, and old.”[2]

Still, Russell’s mistake appears to be an honest one because Henry’s signature does look like ‘Klimenhaga.’ However, there are enough examples to show that his German surname was, in fact, Kleimenhagen.[3] Additionally, the name Klimenhaga doesn’t exist in German records, and the word “haga” has no meaning in the German language. In contrast, the word “hagen’ means surrounded by a hedge or protective enclosure like a wood, often associated with a castle,[4] and likely derives from the original village name–for example, Wolfhagen.


Climenhag-with-an-a in records and documents

Beginning about 1825 the surname Glimanhaga or Glimenhaga first appears in the records. The ‘G’ spelling is of little importance to this particular argument. Suffice it to say that g, c, and k are all interchangeable by sound in the Low German language, including the Mennonite German, and Pennsylvania Deutch dialects.[5] What’s important is that as early as 1825 the Climenhag-with-an-a spelling is found in the marriage records of two of Henry’s children, as well as some land sale records.[6]

Henry’s children, in order of birth, were Anna, Martin, Henry Jr., Abraham, and Moses. As only Martin and Henry Jr., and their descendants, used the Climenhaga and Climenhage spellings, I will only focus on those branches. In an informal 1828 census son Martin is listed as Climenhagen or Climenhager.[7] In the 1851 Canadian Federal Census Martin and his three sons Moses, David, and Martin junior, who were grown and had family’s of their own, also went by Climenhagen.[8] In the 1861 and 1871 census records, they were recorded as Climonhage and Climenhage respectively.[9] In the 1861 Canadian Federal Census son Henry Jr. is listed as Climanhage or Clemonhage, as are his sons William, Abraham, and David.[10] In the 1871 census Henry and his descendants were Climanhager, and by the 1880s and 1890s they were Climenhage and Climenhague.[11] Of course, there were exceptions but, as the 19th century progressed, the general trend was toward the Climenhag-with-an-e spelling. I have included a genealogical table below to help keep track of who-is-who.

Descendants of Martin & Henry
This table includes two generations of the male descendants of Martin and Henry Junior. The a/e ending indicates these people fluctuated in their spelling. The names in red indicate their exclusive use of the Climenhaga spelling after the turn of the century. The red star indicates that Ben’s son Emerson and his descendants also used the Climenhaga spelling.

I should mention that, at least in my family, my last name is pronounced phonetically as Climb-men-hag, whereas Climenhaga is phonetically Climb-men-haig-ah. In the mid to late 1870s the spelling on some of the official records began to shift toward Climenhaig. For example, this spelling is found on the death registrations for sons Martin in 1876, and Henry in 1879.[12] This is true also for Martin’s son David, and grandson Peter Martin–the birth registrations for their children spell their surname as Climenhaig for the most part.[13] So, this new spelling is pronounced similarly to Climenhag-with-an-e.

The point that I want to convey is that by the 1850s the Climenhag-with-an-a spelling was already on the decline and almost non-existent by the 1870s. In fact, the ‘a’ spelling began to die out shortly after Henry’s children received their 100-acre parcel’s of land in 1825 as per their father’s will. As Henry’s surname in these documents is spelled Climenhagen or Clymenhagen, his children may have come to believe that the Climenhag-with-an-a spelling was incorrect.

As an aside, the dependence on documented spellings of the surname may also be the reason for the double-g spelling of Henry’s second youngest son Abraham Climenhegg. The land sale record for the parcel of land inherited by Abraham in 1825 spells his father’s last name as Clymenhaggen.[14] Prior to 1825 Abraham was spelling his last name as Glimanhaga. Henry’s youngest son, Moses Glimanhaga, left Bertie Township in 1828 and eventually relocated to the United States where he continued to use the Glimanhaga spelling.

So, although the Climenhag-with-an-a spelling had strongly taken root prior to 1825, by the latter part of the 19th century it was disappearing from the records.

Climenhag-with-an-a returns (with a vengeance!)

Years ago, while looking through the birth registration records for Ontario, Canada, I found something rather peculiar. In a handful of the birth records for the family of Peter Martin Climenhaga the surname, spelled Climenhaig, was crossed out and replaced with ‘Climinhaga’ printed in smaller lettering above. This was not a simple spelling mistake that had been corrected. These were systematic changes to a decade’s worth of one family’s birth records. Some examples are shown below.


For me, two questions came to mind: Who made these changes, and what were this person’s motivations? The first question is easily answered. It was Peter himself–the children’s ‘father’–that requested the corrections, as stated on the registration. This was possible due to changes in the Ontario Vital Statistics Act of 1927[15]:

(2) If the forms containing the original entry have been returned to the Registrar-General, the Registrar-General shall on evidence satisfactory to him correct the error in the margin of the form as well as in the indexed record thereof without altering the original entry, and shall note thereon the fact that the correction has been made and the date thereof. R.S.O. 1927, c. 78, s. 17.

As per this act, persons could now go back through the records to make changes or correct any earlier mistakes. Peter requested these corrections beginning in 1929 which is likely when he learned of the changes to the Vital Statistics Act. However, it is known that he began using the Climenhaga spelling just prior to the turn of the century.
The second question is not as easily answered. The decision to request these changes to his children’s official birth registration records wouldn’t have been done on a whim. Therefore, Peter must have been convinced that Climenhag-with-an-a was the true and correct spelling. But what evidence would have been so compelling? Perhaps Peter had found documented evidence. Could Peter have been in possession of of his great-grandfather’s land grant, land grant receipt, or both?

We can follow the progression of Henry’s personal possessions to some degree. In his Will Henry Climenhagen writes, “…I give and bequeath unto Barbery my beloved wife all my lands that I now posess and all my movables goods and chattels as long as she remains my wife…” It is assumed that Barbary died in 1825 which is when Henry’s five hundred acres of land were divided among his children. After her death it’s believed that Henry’s personal possessions passed to his eldest son Martin as Henry’s will stated also that son Martin was to receive”…the old

King George III seal. The seal was attatched to the original land grant in 1805 Photo: Trevor Climenhage
King George III seal. The seal was attached to the original land grant in 1805
Photo: Trevor Climenhage

dweling place with all the buildings and improvements…” In turn, in Martin Climenhaga’s Will he left all his personal possessions to his son David, “…[to] David Climenhage I also give and bequeath all my personal property of every kind and nature whatsoever.” It is likely that David also left a Will upon his death in 1913 but no copy of it has been found. Peter Martin Climenhaga was the eldest son of David and he is believed to have received some of Henry’s personal possessions, as did David’s youngest son Daniel. A descendant of Daniel’s is in possession of the wax seal (shown left) that accompanied the official land grant, and this person believes that the land grant itself passed to Peter Martin’s eldest son Solomon who, in turn, passed it on to his descendants. However, the location of the land grant is unknown at this time. Therefore, it is highly probable that Peter received some of his great-grandfather’s documents upon the death of his father, including documents with the Klimenhaga misspelling.

What’s more, in speaking with many descendants of Peter Martin Climenhaga, he was said to be quite adamant as to the correctness of the Climenhag-with-an-a spelling, as were many of his children. By the early part of the twentieth century Peter and his descendants began using the Climenhaga spelling exclusively. Peter’s younger brother Benjamin primarily used the Climenhag-with-an e spelling, and is evidenced on his grave marker. But, Peter may also have had a hand in convincing his nephew–Benjamin’s son Emerson–to use the Climenhaga spelling. Of Henry junior’s sons, only Abraham used the Climenhag-with-an-a spelling–he too may have been moved by Peter Martin’s strong conviction about the spelling.

In Sum

How did the Climenhag-with-an a spelling come about? My belief is that the Climenhaga spelling was the result of a clerical error–I have laid out the circumstantial evidence, and it will be up to others to decide if I have made my case convincingly. Although the Climenhaga spelling was prominent in the early part of the 19th century, after 1825 it began to be supplanted by the Climenhag-with an-e spelling. The records appear to indicate that Peter Martin Climenhaga, great-grandson of Henry Climenhagen, was the biggest proponent of the Climenhaga spelling to the degree that he requested changes to all of his children’s birth registration records.

What is most interesting from this research is the possibility that the Climenhaga spelling could have been lost to time had it not been for Peter Martin Climenhaga. Peter’s uncompromising belief about the true and correct nature of the Climenhag-with-an-a spelling may have singlehandedly saved it from becoming a historical footnote.

*This article is based on the “Is the Climenhaga spelling due to a clerical error?” post which appeared on the Climenhag* Project Facebook Group March 20th, 2014.

Footnotes    ((↵) returns to text)
  1. Upper Canada Land Petitions LAC “C” Bundle 3, Petition Number 80.(↵)
  2. E.G. Firth, “Russell, Peter,” in Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 5, University of Toronto/Université Laval, 2003–, accessed April 11, 2016,↵)
  3. J. Climenhage, What was the original family name?, 2012. Accessed at↵)
  4.; Notes and Queries: Medium of intercommunication for literary men, artists, antiquaries, genealogists, etc., second series, Vol. 8, July-December 1859, London, Bell & Daldy.(↵)
  5. A. Sonnenschein & J.S. Stallybrass, German for the English. London: David Nutt, 1857.(↵)
  6. Ontario Historical Society, Ontario History, Volumes 5-8. Ontario: Kraus Reprint Co., 1904 (pp 206-207). [Note: “By banns, Abraham Glimanhaga, of Willoughby, and Mary Simmerman, of Bertie, married in Stamford, the 22nd November, 1825;” “By banns, Henry Glimanhaga and Susan Bickard, of Bertie, married in Stamford, the 23nd January, 1826.”]; On 16 April 1838 (Reg 25 July 1839) Henry Glymenhaga sold to John Pickhart 50 acres in Lot 14 Concession 11 from the Niagara River, Bertie Twp. beginning at a post in front of Concession 11 for ₤100 (B255 #12597).(↵)
  7. 1828 Bertie Twp, Welland, LAC #MS-181 Reel 1. Accessed at OntarioGenWeb’s Census Project↵)
  8. Census of 1851 (Canada East, Canada West, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia). Library and Archives Canada, Ottawa, Canada. Accessed at↵)
  9. 1861 Census of Canada & 1871 Census of Canada, Library and Archives Canada. Accessed at; ttp://↵)
  10. 1861 Census of Canada, Library and Archives Canada. Accessed at↵)
  11. 1871 Census of Canada, Library and Archives Canada. Accessed at; 1881 Census of Canada, Library and Archives Canada; 1891 Census of Canada, Library and Archives Canada↵)
  12. Archives of Ontario. Registrations of Deaths, 1869-1934. MS 935, 496 reels. Archives of Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Accessed at &h=1370687&ti=0&indiv=try&gss=pt.; &h=842490&ti=0&indiv=try&gss=pt.(↵)
  13. Registrations of Births and Stillbirths – 1869-1909. MS 929, 206 reels. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Archives of Ontario. Accessed at↵)
  14. On 6 Dec 1799 (Reg 18 Dec 1799) Parshall Terry et ux sold to Henry Clymanhaggen 300 acres in Lot 13 Concessions 9 & 10 & Lot 14 Concession 11 from the Niagara River, Bertie Twp. (A19 #157).(↵)
  15. Ontario (1937) “c 88 Vital Statistics Act,”Ontario: Revised Statutes: Vol. 1937: Iss. 1, Article 92. Available at:↵)
Posted in Climenhaga, Climenhage, Family Name, Henry Climenhagen, Kleimenhagen | Leave a comment

The Saturday Night Fun Challenge

The table below lists the birth places for five generations of my family. I was inspired to do this by Kris Hocker, who got the idea from Randy Seaver. If you’re interested you can make your own birth chart here.

I found this exercise interesting on a few levels. First, there is less diversity in my ancestor’s birth places over the last 150 to 200 years than I remembered (mainly Ontario, and parts of England). This is because I often think about the country where a person’s ancestral line originated, rather than where that person was born. Second, many of my ancestors are Canadian. Although I strongly identify as Canadian I somehow didn’t see ‘Canadian’ as a valid origin. Again, I think the reason is rooted in tracing family lines back to their European country of origin. Also, I think it’s partly because Canada is a country of immigrants–the only real “Canadians” are the First Nations people of Canada.

I have decided to change this way of thinking. Now when people ask “what are you,” I’ll say English, Irish, French, German (and Swiss), and also Canadian.

Birth Chart-1

Posted in Saturday night fun challenge | Leave a comment

15 Days (Pt. 4). A Place for a Warrior to Call Home

15 daysIn the last post Henry [Clemens] appeared before the Court of Common Pleas in Huntingdon County, PA to prove that he was destitute in order to continue receiving his Revolutionary War pension. The United States Government instituted this requirement in order to stop pensioners from feigning poverty. In Henry’s case he appears to only have needed someone—Thomas Wallace—to vouch for his dire situation. Essentially the court took Henry’s word for it. But was he actually in dire straits?

In 1787, Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania was created from part of Bedford County.[1] Six townships made up Huntingdon County at this time in which Tyrone Township was one. Henry Climing appears in the tax records for the newly formed county for that year[2], and Henry ClimingHawk is found in the 1788 tax records[3]. In 1788 Henry claimed 1 cow, no land, and paid 4 pence in tax. As Henry is found living in Pennsylvania in 1787, we know that he lived in Baltimore, Maryland for no more than four years.[4]

In 1789 Franklin Township was formed from part of Tyrone Township.[5] Henery Clemenhake appears as head of the household in the first United States Federal Census in 1790.[6] In total the following “Free Whites” are listed:

  • 1 male of 16 years and upwards [Henry; born 1776 or earlier]
  • 1 female [Unknown A]

In September of 1790, Henry applied to survey 100 acres of land on the Bald Eagle Ridge in Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania.[7] On January 19th, 1791, Henry paid 10 pounds and was issued a warrant to survey this land. The warrant states:

“Whereas Henry Clymenhawk of the County of [blank] hath requested to take up one hundred acres of land adjoining or nearly adjoining land known by the name of the London Land now occupied by Daniel Pennington and James Parks on the Bald Eagle Ridge in Franklin Township in the County of Huntingdon…”[8]

As shown in the map below, a return was made in 1792 with the land surveyed for just over 70 acres.

1792 map

“In pursuance of a warrant dated the 19th of January 1791, surveyed 21st December 1792 to Henry Clymenhawk the above described tract of land, called [blank] situated on the top of Bald Eagle Ridge about a mile south of the head of Warriors Mark run in Franklin Township Huntingdon County, containing seventy acres one hundred and thirty four perches and the allowance of six (?) for roads”[9]

It appears that Henry was able to stake out his own land because his section of Bald Eagle Ridge has the only three fresh water springs that never dried up year round.[10]

In 1798, Warriors Mark Township was formed from Franklin Township.[11] The name is said to derive from the Iroquois warriors marking the trees between the villages of Warriors Mark and Spring Mount.[12] Henry Clyminghawk appears in the 1798 Pennsylvania tax list in which he owns a 16 x 18 ‘ house worth $15 and 70 acres of land worth $50.[13]

The Pennsylvania Septennial Census of 1800 lists Henry Climenhawk as a farmer,[14] and the 1800 United States Federal Census records Henry Climbinghawk as the head of the family in Warriors Mark Township.[15] The household includes:

  • 1 male of 45 and upwards [Henry; born 1755 or earlier]
  • 1 female of 26 and under 45 [Unknown A; born between 1756 and 1775]
  • 1 male under 10 years of age [Peter Graffius; 7 years]

In his history of Huntingdon County, J. Simpson Africa records the family tree for the Graffius family of Huntingdon County and states that “Peter [Graffius], lived with Henry Clymenhawk, in Warriors Mark.”[16]Peter Graffius Senior (1749-1793), and wife Anna Catherine Lupfer (1758-1793), had six children before their untimely deaths. Catharine died April 30th, 1793 [17]. Peter Graffius senior made his will September 16th of 1793, and died the following month.[18] According to later United States census records[19] Peter Graffius junior was born in 1793. Peter’s mother may have died from complications during childbirth as was common during this time period, however this is only speculation. As the dates of birth for Peter (and his family) are known and recorded elsewhere, I have included only their ages instead of the birth year ranges from the census records.

In the 1810 United States Federal Census H. Cleminhagh is recorded as the head of the family.[20]The household in 1810 had the following persons:

  • 1 male of 45 and upwards [Henry; born 1765 or earlier]
  • 1 female of 45 and upwards [Unknown A; born 1765 or earlier]

Peter Graffius, who was 17 years old in 1810, is not listed as living with Henry and Unknown A.  According to the provisions of his father’s will Peter was to be sent to school at age 12, and then to apprentice in a trade:

“I also alow my two sons to be kept as affores untill the arivel to the age of twelve years during which time or as much as may be for there benefit to be kept at scooll and then to bound out to trades at the discretion of my Executor untill the arive to twenty one years of age and then I alow my whole estate both real and personal that shall then be remaining to be divided among my six children (or so many of them as shall be alive) Viz Elizabeth Mary Catherine Susannah Isarel and Peter…”[21]

On September 5th, 1812 Henry Clymenhawk was granted the patent on 70.134 acres of land located on Bald Eagle Ridge .[22] In 1818 Henry applied for a Revolutionary War pension,[23] and was required to prove that he was destitute in 1820 in order to continue his pension eligibility.[24]

In the 1820 United States Federal Census, Henry Cleminghawk is named as the head of the household in Warriors Mark Township.[25] The household includes the following “Free White” persons:

  • 1 male 45 and over [Henry; born 1775 or earlier]
  • 1 female 45 and over [Unknown A; born 1775 or earlier]
  • 1 male of sixteen and under twenty-six [Peter Graffius; 25 years]
  • 1 male 16 thru 18 [Unknown C; born between 1802 and 1804]
  • 1 female under 10 [Unknown B; born between 1811 and 1820]

Peter Graffius was married in 1822 to Ann Graham,[26] the daughter of Robert Graham and Elizabeth Wall Jeffrey. In the 1830 United States Federal Census[27] Henry Climinghawke is listed as the head of the household. The following persons resided in this household:

  • 1 male of seventy and under eighty [Henry; born between 1751 and 1760]
  • 1 female of sixty and under seventy [Unknown A; born between 1761 and 1770)
  • 1 male of thirty and under forty [Peter Graffius; 37 years]
  • 1 female of twenty and under thirty [Ann Graham; 25 years]
  • 1 female of fifteen and under twenty [Unknown B; born between 1811 and 1815]
  • 1 male of five and under ten [John Graffius; 7 years]
  • 1 female of five and under ten [Mary Graffius; 5 years]
  • 1 male under five years of age [Henry Graffius; 3 years]
  • 1 female under five years of age [Elizabeth Graffius; 1 year]

The census data helps to narrow down Henry’s date of birth. We know from the 1830 US Federal Census records that Henry was born between 1751 and 1760. We also know from the 1800 US Federal Census records that Henry was born no later than 1755. So we can limit Henry’s year of birth to between 1751 and 1755.

The identity of “Unknown A” is not clear from the records. We might speculate that this woman is Henry’s wife although no marriage records have been found for this couple. She could also be a relative, or simply a border. We know only that Unknown A was White, and born between 1761 and 1765 based on census record data. “Unknown B” was born between 1811 and 1815 according to the 1830 US Federal Census. Was she a daughter of Henry and Unknown A? The identity of Unknown C, born between 1802 and 1804, is also a mystery. Is this man Thomas Wallace, who witnessed Henry’s 1820 Estate Schedule and Income in regards to his Revolutionary War Pension in that “he is well acquainted with the within men­tioned peti­tioner Henry Klem­mens and his cir­cum­stances and per­sonal prop­erty?”[28]

Henry’s last pension payment from serving in the Revolutionary War was made in September of 1837.[29] His cheques were received semi-annually with the next payment due in March of 1838. This suggests that Henry died sometime in the Fall of 1837 or the Spring of 1838. By 1839 Peter Graffius and his family may have been living in Clearfield County, Pennsylvania.[30] It is not clear what became of the other ‘unknown’ persons who were also living with Henry.

To address the question of feigning poverty in order to continue his Revolutionary War pension, Henry certainly presents his situation as more bleak than it actually was. Henry had 70 acres of land, as opposed to the 3 acres recorded in 1820, and did have a family of sorts, although we do not know the actual relationship of some of these folks to Henry. So, it appears from the evidence that Henry was not altogether truethful about his situation. If Henry did stretch the truth the system was set up in such a way that there was a monetary incentive to do so. And, it is important to remember that, according to Henry, he did serve in the war for seven years—1777 to 1783…or did he?


  • Age:
    • Henry is 63 years and 9 months old as of 29 May 1818 suggesting he is born in August of 1755.
    • According to United States Federal Census records, Henry was born between 1751 and 1755 which lends support to the age reported in his 1818 Revolutionary War Pension Application. 
    • He is 72 years old in August 17th 1820 suggesting he is born in 1748.
  • Origin:
    • He is “formerly” of the state of Jersey
    • He is likely of European, and possibly German, descent having signed his name “Henrich Klimens.”
  • Residence:
    • He lived in Baltimore Maryland after 1783, but resided in Huntingdon County PA in 1787.
    • He resided in Huntingdon County, PA from 1787 until his death in 1837.
    • His right to 70.134 acres of land is by settlement and is claimed by survey application (1790), warrant, (1791), return (1792), and land patent (1812).
  • Family:
    • He lived with an unknown woman, possibly a wife, from at least 1790 until 1830 or later.
    • He raised Peter Graffius, son of Peter Graffius and Anna Catherine Lupfer, after the death of Peter’s parents.
    • He raised an unknown girl, born between 1811 and 1815.
    • Peter Graffius, his wife, and children lived with Henry and the two unknown women after 1820.
  • Work & Health
    • He is in poor health (age, fail­ing eyesight, rupture) and lives by daily labour.
  • Military:
    • He enlisted May 1777 at Westfield, New Jersey.
    • He served with the 2nd Jersey Regiment under the command of Captain James Maxwell and Colonel Shrieve.
    • He was in the battles of Germantown where he was wounded and taken prisoner for eight months; the Battle on Monmouth after he was exchanged in White Plains, NY, and in the Battles of Shorthills, Newtown, French Catherine, and Appletown in the Genesee County, NY, under General Sullivan and Captain Bowman with the Indians.
    • He was honourably discharged in Morristown, New Jersey in November or December of 1783.

Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3

Footnotes    ((↵) returns to text)
  1. J. Simpson Africa. Huntingdon County. In William H. Egle’s, History of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania: Civil, Political, and Military (3rd Ed.). Philadelphia, E.M. Gardner, 1883.(↵)
  2. Samuel T. Wiley. Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia of Blair Co, PA. Philadelphia, 1892, p. 113. Note: Henry Climing is listed as a freeholder. As this is a secondary source it may be that the freeholder title was in error, or it could indicate Henry Climing is a different person altogether as Henry Climinghawk did not own land in 1787.(↵)
  3. Pennsylvania Historical & Museum Commission; Records of the Office of the Comptroller General, RG-4; Tax & Exoneration Lists, 1762-1794; Microfilm Roll: 327.(↵)
  4. “United States Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty Land Warrant Applications, 1800-1900,” database, FamilySearch ( : accessed 20 December 2015), Henry Clemens, pension number S. 41477, service New Jersey; from “Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty-Land Warrant Application Files,” database and images, ( : n.d); citing NARA microfilm publication M804 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1974); FHL microfilm 970,575.(↵)
  5. J. Simpson Africa. Huntingdon County, 1883.(↵)
  6. 1790 United States Federal Census. Huntingdon, Pennsylvania, United States; Online publication – Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2010. Images reproduced by FamilySearch.Original data – First Census of the United States, 1790 (NARA microfilm publication M637, 12 rolls).(↵)
  7. Pennsylvania, Land Warrants and Applications, 1733-1952. Online publication – Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2012.Original data – Warrant Applications, 1733-1952. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania State Archives. Land Warrants. Pennsylvania State Archives, Harrisburg, PA.(↵)
  8. Ibid.(↵)
  9. Pennsylvania State Archives, Book C-008, p. 100.(↵)
  10. Sharon Nearhoof May, Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania, Email mes­sage to author, 30 October 2009 [This mes­sage states that the descendants of the Nearhoof family who bought Henry’s land believe that Henry was allowed to stake out his own land because his 2 mile section of Bald Eagle Mountain has the only 3 springs that never dried up year round on it.](↵)
  11. J. Simpson Africa. Huntingdon County, 1883.(↵)
  12. Warriors Mark Township, Huntingdon County. History ( accessed 18 January 2016).(↵)
  13. United States Direct Tax of 1798: Tax Lists for the State of Pennsylvania. M372, microfilm, 24 rolls. Records of the Internal Revenue Service, 1791-2006, Record Group 58. National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C. Pennsylvania, U.S. Direct Tax Lists, 1798 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2012.(↵)
  14. Pennsylvania, Septennial Census, 1779-1863. Online publication – Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2012.Original data – Septennial Census Returns, 1779–1863. Box 1026, microfilm, 14 rolls. Records of the House of Representatives. Records of the General Assembly, Record Group 7.(↵)
  15. 1800 United States Federal Census. Warriorsmark, Huntingdon, Pennsylvania. Online publication – Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2010. Images reproduced by FamilySearch.Original data – Second Census of the United States, 1800. (NARA microfilm publication M32, 52 rolls).(↵)
  16. J. Simpson Africa. History of Huntingdon and Blair Counties Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania; L. H. Everts, 1883, p. 417.(↵)
  17. Sunshine Foulke Chambers. Foulke, Lupfer, and Allied Families. United States, 1952, p. 46.(↵)
  18. “Pennsylvania Probate Records, 1683-1994,” images, FamilySearch ( : accessed 19 January 2016), Huntingdon > Wills 1787-1822 vol 1-2 > images 74 and 75 of 451; county courthouses, Pennsylvania.(↵)
  19. “United States Census, 1870,” database with images, FamilySearch ( : accessed 18 January 2016), Pennsylvania > Clearfield > Bradford > image 21 of 34; citing NARA microfilm publication M593 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).(↵)
  20. 1810 United States Federal Census. Year: 1810; Census Place: Warriors Mark, Huntingdon, Pennsylvania; Roll: 51; Page: 163; Family History Number: 0193677; Image: 00017. Online publication – Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2010. Images reproduced by FamilySearch ( accessed 19 January 2016).(↵)
  21. Pennsylvania Probate Records, 1683-1994,” images, FamilySearch ( : accessed 19 January 2016), Huntingdon > Wills 1787-1822 vol 1-2 > image 74 of 451; county courthouses, Pennsylvania.(↵)
  22. Pennsylvania State Archives, RG-17, Patent Book H-7, p. 473.(↵)
  23. “United States Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty Land Warrant Applications, 1800-1900,” database, FamilySearch ( : accessed 20 December 2015), Henry Clemens, pension number S. 41477, service New Jersey; from “Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty-Land Warrant Application Files,” database and images, ( : n.d); citing NARA microfilm publication M804 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1974); FHL microfilm 970,575.(↵)
  24. Ibid.(↵)
  25. 1820 United States Federal Census. Online publication – Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2010. Images reproduced by FamilySearch. Year: 1820; Census Place: , Huntingdon, Pennsylvania; Roll: M33_104 ( accessed 19 January 2016).(↵)
  26. Indicated in various Graffius family records but I have not found an original source for this information.(↵)
  27. 1830 United States Federal Census. Census Place: Warriors Mark, Huntingdon, Pennsylvania; Page: 58; NARA Series: M19; Roll Number: 166; Family History Film: 0020640. Online publication – Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2009. Images reproduced by FamilySearch. .Original data – 1830 U.S. Census, population schedules. NARA microfilm publication M19, 201 rolls. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records.(↵)
  28. “United States Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty Land Warrant Applications, 1800-1900,” database, FamilySearch ( : accessed 20 December 2015), Henry Clemens, pension number S. 41477, service New Jersey; from “Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty-Land Warrant Application Files,” database and images, ( : n.d); citing NARA microfilm publication M804 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1974); FHL microfilm 970,575.(↵)
  29. United States Revolutionary War Pension Payment Ledgers, 1818-1872, images, FamilySearch ( cc=2069831 : accessed 18 December 2015), 5-vol E Revolutionary War pensioners image 30 of 436; citing NARA microfilm publication T718 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1962).(↵)
  30. Some Graffius family records indicate that Peter J. Graffius, born in 1839, was born in Somerset, PA or Clearfield County, PA.(↵)
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15 Days (Pt. 3): The 1820 Estate Schedule and Income of Henry CLEMENS

15 days

The Service-Pension act of 1818 resulted in a great number of pension appli­ca­tions. Many of these applications were approved, and the US Con­gress struggled to appro­pri­ate large sums of money to meet the pen­sion demands. Finan­cial dif­fi­cul­ties, and the belief that many appli­cants were feign­ing poverty to obtain ben­e­fits under the terms of the act, caused Con­gress to enact reme­dial leg­is­la­tion on May 1st, 1820. Pen­sioners already receiv­ing pay­ments under the 1818 act, and would-be pen­sioners, were required to sub­mit a cer­ti­fied sched­ule of their estate and Income to the Sec­re­tary of War—the Sec­re­tary was autho­rized to remove pensioners who were not in need of assis­tance.[1] As such, Henry Clemens was required to re-appear before the Court of Com­mon Pleas in Huntingdon County to show clearly that he really was destitute. Henry’s 1820 schedule of his estate and income is as follows:

“West­ern Dis­trict of Penn­syl­va­nia Hunt­ing­don County Js.

On the sev­en­teenth day of August in the year of our Lord one thou­sand eight hun­dred and twenty per­son­ally appeared in the open Court of Com­mon Pleas for the county of Hunt­ing­don before the Hon­ourable Charles Hus­ton Esquire Pres­i­dent and David Stew­art & Joseph McCune Esquires asso­ciate judges of the same court, being a court of record for the same dis­trict Henry Clemens aged sev­enty two years res­i­dent of War­rior Mark Town­ship in the county of Hunt­ing­don afore­said in said dis­trict who being duly sworn accord­ing to law doth declare on his oath that he served in the Rev­o­lu­tion­ary War as follows (Viz) That he enlisted with Cap­tain James Maxwell in Colonel Shrieve’s Reg­i­ment in the New Jer­sey Line in the year [blank] that he was in the Bat­tle of Short­hills and that he was taken pris­oner at the Bat­tle of Ger­man­town was taken to New York and was after­wards exchanged that he joined his com­pany again and was drafted to go out after the Indi­ans under Cap­tain Bow­man in Gen­eral Sul­li­van com­mand and after the war was over he was hon­ourably discharged. That his orig­i­nal dec­la­ra­tion is dated the twenty ninth day of May in the year of our Lord one thou­sand eight hun­dred and eigh­teen. And the num­ber of his Pen­sion Cer­tifi­cate is no 12.514. And I do solemnly swear that I was a res­i­dent cit­i­zen of the United States on the eigh­teenth day of March AD 1818. And that I have not since that time by gift, sale of by any man­ner dis­posed of my prop­erty or any part thereof with an intent thereby to dimin­ish it so as to bring myself within the pro­vi­sions of an act of Con­gress enti­tled an act to pro­vide for cer­tain per­sons engaged in the Lands and Naval Ser­vice of the United States in the Rev­o­lu­tion­ary War paged the 18th day of March 1818. And that I have not any prop­erty or secu­ri­ties con­tracts or debts due to me nor have I any income other than what I con­tained in the sched­ule hereto annexed and by me subscribed.

  • 1 Cow – 1 Churn
  • 1 Horses – guns
  • 1 Cab­ben [sic] and about 3 acres of moun­tain land
  • 1 plough
  • 1 har­row  1 mat­tock  1 shovel
  • 1 bed and bed­ding 1 old chest – 2 old barrels
  • 3 chairs – 2 pots and hooks shovel & tongs
  • 1 old table dishes knives & forks dishes and plates

That his right to land is only by set­tle­ment and it is claimed by sur­veys and that this declar­ant is indebted for the pur­chase of his horse and other things about 40 Pounds. Sworn & Sub­scribed in open court Aug 17 1820, [signed] William Steel Proty, & Henry Clem­mens [signed by William Steel]

That this declar­ant has no fam­ily and lives by daily labour and by rea­son of age and his eye­sight fail­ing he has become unable to sup­port him­self and that he also is afflicted with a rupture. Sworn and sub­scribed in open court Aug 17 1820, [signed] William Steel Proty & Henry Clem­mens [signed by William Steel]

West­ern Dis­trict of Penn­syl­va­nia Hunt­ing­don County Js

Thomas Wal­lace being duly sworn accord­ing to  Law did depose and say that he is well acquainted with the within men­tioned peti­tioner Henry Klem­mens and his cir­cum­stances and per­sonal prop­erty and esti­mates the same to be worth ninety dol­lars which in the opin­ion of depu­rate is the utmost extent of its value. Sworn and sub­scribed in open court this 17 day of August 1820, [signed] William Steel Proty & Thomas Wal­lace [signed by William Steel]”[2]

Although this revision to the Service-Pension Act of 1818 was meant to quell the feigning of poverty by applicants, it failed to do so—at least in the case of Henry Clemens. In particular the points I will cover in the posts that follow will detail Henry’s land holdings and family.

What We Have Learned So Far

  • Age:
    • He is 63 years and 9 months old as of 29 May 1818 suggesting he is born in August of 1755
    • He is 72 years old in August 17th 1820 suggesting he is born in 1748 
  • Origin:
    • He is “formerly” of the state of Jersey
    • He is likely of European, and possibly German, descent having signed his name “Henrich Klimens.”
  • Residence:
    • He lived in Baltimore Maryland after 1783
    • He is a resident of Warriors Mark, Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania in 1818 & 1820
    • His right to land is by set­tle­ment and is claimed by sur­veys
  • Family:
    • None
  • Work & Health
    • He is in poor health (age, fail­ing eyesight, rupture) and lives by daily labour
  • Military:
    • He enlisted May 1777 at Westfield, New Jersey
    • He served with the 2nd Jersey Regiment under the command of Captain James Maxwell and Colonel Shrieve
    • He was in the battles of Germantown where he was wounded and taken prisoner for eight months; the Battle on Monmouth after he was exchanged in White Plains, NY, and in the Battles of Shorthills, Newtown, French Catherine, and Appletown in the Genesee County, NY, under General Sullivan and Captain Bowman with the Indians.
    • He was honourably discharged in Morristown, New Jersey in November or December of 1783

Part 1     Part 2

Footnotes    ((↵) returns to text)
  1. United States. National Archives and Records Ser­vice. Pam­phlet Describ­ing M804: Rev­o­lu­tion­ary War Pen­sion and Bounty-Land-Warrant Appli­ca­tion Files. Wash­ing­ton, D.C., National Archives And Record Ser­vice, 1974.; Resch, J.P. (1988). Pol­i­tics and pub­lic cul­ture: The Rev­o­lu­tion­ary War Pen­sion Act of 1818. Jour­nal of the Early Repub­lic, 8, 139–158.(↵)
  2. “United States Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty Land Warrant Applications, 1800-1900,” database, FamilySearch ( : accessed 20 December 2015), Henry Clemens, pension number S. 41477, service New Jersey; from “Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty-Land Warrant Application Files,” database and images, ( : n.d); citing NARA microfilm publication M804 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1974); FHL microfilm 970,575.(↵)
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15 Days (Pt. 2): The 1818 Pension Application of Henry CLEMENS

15 days

The Service-Pension Act of March 18, 1818, was established by Congress to provide lifetime pensions to poverty stricken veterans of the Revolutionary War. Veterans must have served in a Continental military organization or in the U. S. naval service for at least 9 months or until the end of the war. Prior to this act disability or death of a serviceman was the only basis for a pension. Pensions were paid semi-annually—March and September—with $20 per month ($240/year) for officers and $8 per month ($96/year) for non-officers. Each veteran was eligible for the pension upon proof of service before a court of record and verification by the War Department.[1]

Two months after this act was authorized, a man named Henry Clemens applied for a Revolutionary War pension in Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania. The application is as follows:

“State of Pennsylvania and Huntingdon County Js.

On this twenty ninth day of May in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and eighteen, before me the subscriber, one of the Associate judges of the Court of Common Pleas in and for the county aforesaid in the commonwealth aforesaid personally appears, Henry Clemens aged sixty three years & nine months, old, resident in Warrior Mark Township in the county of Huntingdon and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, but formerly of the state of Jersey, who being by me first duly sworn, according to law doth on his oath, make the following declaration, in order to obtain the provisions made by the late Act of Congress entitled “An act to provide for certain persons engaged in the land and naval service of the United States in the Revolutionary War.” That he, the said Henry Clemens enlisted in Westfield in the state of Jersey in the company commanded by Captain James Maxwell in the month of May one thousand seven hundred & seventy seven in the second Jersey Regiment commanded by Col. Shrieve for three years of during the war. That he continued to serve in the said corps, in the service of the United States until the later end of the month of November or in the beginning of the month of December in the year one thousand seven hundred & eighty three when he was discharged from service in Morristown in the state of Jersey, which discharge he lost afterwards in the City of Baltimore in the State of Maryland. That he was in the battles of Germantown where he was wounded & taken prisoner and was prisoner for eight months also in the Battle on Monmouth after he was exchanged in White Plains and in the Battles of Newtown, French Catherine, & Appletown in the Genesee County under General Sullivan with the Indians. And that he is in reduced circumstances, and stands in need of the assistance of this County for support. And that he has no other evidence now in his power of his said services. That he hath no pension heretofore allowed him by the laws of the United States to his knowledge & if any such exists he doth hereby fully & entirely release the same to the United States. Sworn to subscribed & declared before me, the day & year aforesaid before [signed] David Stewart, [signed] Henrich Klimens.

Pennsylvania & Huntingdon County Js.

I David Stewart an associate Judge of the Court of Common pleas in and for said county in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania do certify, that it appears to my satisfaction, that the said Henry Clemens did serve in the Revolutionary War, as stated in the preceding declaration, against the common enemy; and I now transmit the proceedings & testimony taken & had before me, to the Secretary for the Department of War, pursuant to the directions to the aforementioned act of Congress May 29th 1818. [signed] David Stewart”[2]

It is important to note Henry’s signature (see below)—“Henrich Klimens”—as this is a key piece of evidence to support the assertion that Henry Clemens/Clymenhawk was a German immigrant. In turn it helps to support the contention that he was a former Hessian soldier.


Henry’s pension claim took over a year to process being approved July 22nd, 1819. He was paid arrears from May 29th, 1818 to March 4th 1819, along with the rest of his semi-annual payment up to September 1819 resulting in a payment of $121.86 (approximately $2200 in 2015).[3]

What We Have Learned So Far

  • Age:
    • Henry is 63 years and 9 months old as of 29 May 1818 suggesting he is born in August of 1755
  • Origin:
    • He is “formerly” of the state of Jersey
    • He is likely of European, and possibly German, descent having signed his name “Henrich Klimens.”
  • Residence:
    • He lived in Baltimore Maryland after 1783
    • He is a resident of Warriors Mark, Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania in 1818
  • Military:
    • He enlisted May 1777 at Westfield, New Jersey
    • He served with the 2nd Jersey Regiment under the command of Captain James Maxwell and Colonel Shrieve
    • He was in the battles of Germantown where he was wounded and taken prisoner for eight months; the Battle on Monmouth after he was exchanged in White Plains, NY, and in the Battles of, Newtown, French Catherine, and Appletown in the Genesee County, NY, under General Sullivan with the Indians.
    • He was honourably discharged in Morristown, New Jersey in November or December of 1783

Jump to:  Part 1

Footnotes    ((↵) returns to text)
  1. United States. National Archives and Records Service. Pamphlet Describing M804: Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty-Land-Warrant Application Files. Washington, D.C., National Archives And Record Service, 1974.; Resch, J.P. (1988). Politics and public culture: The Revolutionary War Pension Act of 1818. Journal of the Early Republic, 8, 139-158.(↵)
  2. “United States Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty Land Warrant Applications, 1800-1900,” database, FamilySearch ( : accessed 20 December 2015), Henry Clemens, pension number S. 41477, service New Jersey; from “Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty-Land Warrant Application Files,” database and images, ( : n.d); citing NARA microfilm publication M804 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1974); FHL microfilm 970,575.(↵)
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15 Days (Pt. 1): Chief Henry CLIMINGHAWK

15 daysHenry Climinghawk died in 1837.[1] He was buried on the Presbyterian side of the Birmingham cemetery in Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania. In Warriors Mark Township, where Henry resided for 50 years, a legend has grown up around him. It is said, by some, that Henry “Climbing Hawk” was “Chief of the Bald Eagle Indians”,[2] and a scout for the Americans during the Revolutionary War—he was even said to have fought against the Indians.[3] But, is this legend true? Was Henry Climinghawk a Native American Chief, and did he fight in the American Revolutionary War against the Indians? In a series of posts I will be documenting the life of Henry Climinghawk. I will argue that Climinghawk was not an Indian Chief, but was instead a former Hessian soldier named Johann Henrich Kleimenhagen who deserted from the 3rd English-Waldeck Regiment in 1777. And, that he subsequently joined, and served out the rest of the war, with the 2nd New Jersey Regiment before finding his way to Warrior’s Mark, Pennsylvania in the late 1780s.

Footnotes    ((↵) returns to text)
  1. “United States Revolutionary War Pension Payment Ledgers, 1818-1872,” images, FamilySearch ( : accessed 18 December 2015), 5-vol E Revolutionary War pensioners > image 30 of 436; citing NARA microfilm publication T718 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1962); Gunning, K.M. (2004). Selected final pension vouchers 1818-1864: Pennsylvania (Vol 1). Westminster, MD: Willow Bend Books. [Note: It is assumed that Henry died in 1837 as his last pension payment is made in September of that year. Conversely he could have died early in 1838](↵)
  2. Elizabeth Nearhoof. Echoes from Warriors Mark, Pennsylvania and surrounding areas. Self published, 1968; Africa, J.S. (1883). History of Huntingdon and Blair Countries, Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts.(↵)
  3. Altoona Mirror, Altoona Pennsylvania, 3 July 1991, p. 14.(↵)
Posted in Clymenhawk, Kleimenhagen, Revolutionary War, Warriors Mark | Leave a comment

GLIMANHAGA Gleanings from Indiana Newspapers 1850-1924

What follows are gleanings from Indiana newspapers pertaining to the Gimanhaga family after they arrived in Elkhart, Indiana in the late 1840s. I had intended to write this information in story form, and I may still do that, but it’s interesting reading, in its own right I think, “as is.” Enjoy!

1850 (Jul 3). LIST OF LETTERS Remaining in the Post Office, at Goshen July 1st, 1850. Klinenhage, Moses.[1]

1865 (Oct 7). LIST OF LETTERS REMAINING IN THE POST OFFICE at Elkhart, Oct. 7th, 1865: Glumanhaga Adam.[2]

1870 (Jun 2). LIST OF LETTERS Remaining in the Post Office, at Elkhart, Ind., June 2d, 1870: Glimenhaga A S.[3]

1871 (Apr 20). Henry Culp to A. Glymanhaga, 10 acres in w ½ sw ¼ sec 20 tp 36, range 5–$360.[4]

1874 (Dec 30). LIST OF LETTERS Remaining in the Post Office, at Elkhart, Ind., Dec. 30, 1874: Glimanhaga Adam.[5]

1875 (Feb 16). LIST OF LETTERS Remaining in the Post Office, at Elkhart, Feb 16, 1875. Glimenhaga miss M C.[6]

1875 (Jul 15). GLIMANHAGA.—On Wednesday, July 14th, at his residence in Harrison township of dropsy, Moses Glimanhaga, aged 74 years. Mr. Glimanhaga was one of the first settlers of this county, and leaves a respectable family to mourn his loss. Funeral services will be held at the yellow creek Mennonite Church, on Friday, July 16th, at 10 o’clock A.M.[7]

1875 (Aug). KLIMENHAGE. In Elkhart Co., Ind., on the 15th of July, 1875, of Dropsy, Bro. MOSES KLIMENHAGE, aged 72 years, 11 months and 27 days. He was born in Bardi township, in the vicinity of Black Creek, Ontario, on the 17th of July 1802, removed to Ohio in 1840 and from there to Elkhart county, Ind., in 1848. He was married 47 years, had 11 children, five sons and six daughters, two sons and five daughters are still living. He was a man of great patience and meekness, he was a consistent member of the church and was universally beloved and respected. He bore his severe afflictions with the most exemplary submission to his Heavenly Father’s will. He felt prepared for the end, and longed for the time when he should be released from suffering and received to glory. Peace to his ashes. Text, 2 Cor. 4:17, 18.[8]

1883 (Jan 25). Catherine Glimanhage to Alpha B. Culp, 39 acres in Harrison tp., $2,000.[9]

1883 (Oct 4). Mrs. Catharine Glimanhaga is still very poorly.[10]

1883 (Oct 15). GLIMANHAGE. On the 6th of October, in Harrison tp., Elkhart Co., Ind., of a protracted illness, Sister Catharine, widow of the late Moses Glimanhage, who died some eight years ago. She was born in Markham tp., York county, Ontario, and reached the advanced age of 74 years, 1 month and 15 days. She was married on the 29th of April 1828 and was the mother of 11 children, 7 of whom are still living, 9 grand children of whom 4 are yet living. She removed from Canada to Putman county, to the place where she died. She was a faithful and devoted Christian, a kind and tender hearted mother and suffered with meekness and patience, enduring faithfully to the end. Her affliction falls heavily on the sorrowing family but tis God who bereft, and he can heal all their sorrows. She was buried on Sunday Oct. 7th. A large concourse of relatives and friends followed her to the grave. Services at Yellow Creek Meeting-house by J. F. Funk and Noah Metzler from 3 John 2 v. Peace to her ashes.[11]

1883 (Oct 25). Catharine Glimanhaga to John W. Pletcher, 80 a in Harrison tp., $2,000.[12]

1883 (Nov 15). Adam Glimenhaga to L. M. McCoy, 10 a in Harrison tp, $500.[13]

1884. Among those who visited Dr. F. L. Miles for medical treatment, yesterday, were Miss Catharine Glimanhaga, Goshen…[14]

1886 (Mar 18). A.S. Glimanhaga to Jacob G. Wenger, 40 acres in Harrison twp., $2,800.[15] [16]

1886 (Sep 30). Abraham Klimenhaga’s barn, in Harrison township, was struck by lightning, about 4 o’clock this morning, set of fire and entirely destroyed, together with four horses and other property. Loss about $2,500, with insurance of $600.[17]

1886 (Sep 30). The large bank barn of Abraham Glimanhaga, living one mile west of Harrison Center, was struck by lightning this morning at about four o’clock, and was burned with all its contents. Four horses, thirty bushels of clover seed with the wagon on which it was loaded, all his wheat and oats, which were threshed lately, and the hay, fell a prey to the devouring flames. The farming implements and corn were in other buildings and were saved. There was some insurance in the mutual aid association—Goshen Times.[18]

1888 (Jul 19). Abraham and Lydia Glimanhaga visited with D. A. Lehman and family over Sunday. Miss Glimanhaga will visit friends at this place for a few days.[19]

1889 (Sep 26). Curtis A. Freeland and Ella M. Shellenberger, Henry Canen and Edith Glimenhaga, William A. Kantz and Hattie E. Mitchell have been licensed to marry.[20]

1891 (Mar 13). Adam Glimanhaga to Geo & Esther Rellinger land in Harrison tp $150.[21] [22] [23] [24] [25]

1891 (Jun 4). Lydia Glimenhaga lost a black shawl last week between Wakarusa and Shriver’s school house. The finder will please leave it at Dr. Sensenich’s office.[26]

1891 (Oct 16). Adam Glimanhaga, aged 62, died last night at his home eight miles west of Goshen. Funeral tomorrow at ten o’clock at the Mennonite cemetery. His death was the result of a stroke of paralysis.[27] [28]

1891 (Nov 1). GLIMENHAGE. ­ On the 15th of October 1891, in Elkhart county, Indiana, of heart disease, Adam Glimenhage, aged 59 years, 10 months and 27 days. He leaves a sorrowing companion in feeble health and three daughters, brother and four sisters to mourn his death. He was taken suddenly on Monday morning previous. He went out of the house where he fell and became unconscious, in which condition he remained to the time of his death. He was a kind-hearted quiet man, respected and beloved by all who knew him. He was buried on the 18th. Funeral services were held at the chapel, and the burial took place at Yellow Creek. The funeral procession arrived at the church just as the funeral services of Solomon Culp were concluded and the two caskets were placed together and the immense congregation, formed by the two funerals, passed by the two caskets at the same time, presenting a very impressive scene.[29]

1892 (Feb 1). On the 22d of Dec. 1891, in Elkhart county, Indiana, suddenly of heart disease, Edith May Glimanhage, wife of Henry Canon, aged 18 years, 6 months and 18 days. She was buried on Christmas day at Yellow Creek Mennonite Meeting-house, where services were held by C.L. Richart and George Lambert. She felt unwell during the forenoon and after dinner when her sister came to see her she sat down on the bed conversing with her sister with her infant in her arms and fell over and died. Be ye also ready for in such as hour as ye think not the Son of man cometh.[30]

1894 (Jan 25). Regina Glimanhaga to Esther Rellinger, land in Harrison twp., $520.[31] [32]

1894 (May 10). Mrs. Louis Shietzly, of near Syracuse, died a few days ago aged sixty five years. Her maiden name was Barbara Glimenhaga. She was born in Canada and came with her parents to Harrison township, Elkhart county, when 12 years of age. She was married to Mr. Shietzly in 1861, who died in 1884. She has an only child, Mrs. B.F. Kitson, who survives her.[33]

1894 (Jun 1). SHEETSLEY.-On the 25th of April 1894, in Turkey Creek Twp., Kosciusko Co., Ind., of a cancer, Barbara, widow of the late Lewis Sheetsley (who died some ten years ago), aged 65 y., 18 d. She was born in Markham Twp., York Co., Ont., and married in 1860. She was the mother of one child, and 4 grandchildren. Her maiden name was Climenhage. She was a member of the Evangelical denomination. Her last words were, “all is well with me.” Buried April 27 at Byers M.H. Services by Pre. Myers from Rev. 7:14.[34]

1894 (Oct 31). Regina Glimanhaga to Mary C Shine 16 acres in Harrison tp $650.[35] [36] [37] [38]

1895 (Feb). Arvilla, wife of Adam Climenhaga of Harrison township, died Wednesday morning of dropsy. The deceased was sixty-five years of age and leaves a family of children. The funeral services were conducted by Rev. Lehman at the Yellow Creek church.[39]

1895 (Feb 20). Mrs. Adam Climenhaga, of Harrison township, died last Wednesday. She was 65 years of age.[40]

1895 (Feb 21). Obituary of Mrs. Glimanhaga. Mrs. Adam Glimanhaga died at the residence of her daughter, Mrs. Geo. Rellinger, five and one half miles north-east of Wakarusa, Feb, 12th, aged 63 years and 11 months. Mrs. Glimanhaga was the eldest daughter of the late I.C. Bennett and was born in Canada, near Toronto, in 1832. In 1856 she with her parents came to this county, and a year later was married to Adam Glimanhaga, who died some years ago. She was a great sufferer for years, but she bore it all with Christian fortitude often remarking that she ought to be willing to bear some suffering since Christ suffered so much for her. She was laid to rest beside her husband in the cemetery at Yellow Creek on Feb. 15th.[41]

1895 (Mar 15). GLIMENHAGA. ­ On the 12th of February 1895, in Harrison Twp., Elkhart Co., Ind., Regina Glimenhaga, daughter of Isaac and Mary Bennett, aged 62 y., 11 m., 1 d. Buried on the 15th at Yellow Creek M. H. Funeral services by J. S. Lehman and J. F. Funk. Peace be to her ashes.[42]

1904 (May 22). Albert Glymenhagh, aged 65, died in Harrison township today.[43]

1904 (May 24). Abraham Glymenhagy, an old resident of Harrison township, died Sunday night at his home. He was about 65 years of age. The funeral will be held Wednesday at 10 o’clock from the house.[44]

1904 (Jun 2). GLIMANHAGY.-On May 22, 1904, in Harrison Twp., Elkhart Co., Ind., of paralysis, Abraham Glimanhagy, aged 73 Y., 11 M., 20 D. He was born in Markham, Canada, June 2, 1830. He moved with his parents to Putnam Co., Ohio, in 1840, and in 1848 they moved to Elkhart Co., Ind., on the farm where he died. There were eleven children in this family, five sons and six daughters, of whom only four daughters survive. Father and mother died a number of years ago, and the one brother and four sisters (all unmarried) occupied the old home. Bro. Abraham was a faithful member of the Mennonite church for a number of years, and was one of those quiet, inoffensive followers of the Lamb, that had won the love and respect of all who knew him. He was buried at the Yellow Creek M .H. on the 25th. His funeral was largely attended. Services were conducted by John F. Funk and Jonas Loucks, from 2 Cor. 5:1. May God comfort the surviving sisters, who are all in feeble health, and keep them as under the shadow of his wing, until they, too, shall be called to their eternal rest.[45]

1904 (Nov 18). Samuel C. Harrington commissioner, to Fanny Glimanhaga et al., 133 acres in Harrison tp., $660.[46] [47] [48]

1905 (Oct 11). GLIMANHAGA. On October 3, 1905, at her home near Wakarusra, Ind., of paralysis, Anna Glimanhaga, aged 66 years, 5 months and 5 days. One brother and four sisters have been making their home together for many years. A little over a year ago the brother died, and now one of the sisters. She leaves three sisters and other relatives to mourn her departure. Funeral services at the Yellow Creek M.H., Oct. 5, by J.F. Funk and Jonas Loucks.[49]

1906 (Jul 24). WILL OF ANNA GLIMANHAGA Is Probated Today and Disposes of Her Estate. The will of Anna Glimanhaga of Wakarusa, was probated today. It was executed Aug. 2, 1904, and witnessed by Samuel S. Harrington and Aaron S. Sensenich. Mr. Sensenich is named an executor. After suitable burial expenses are paid, the property is to be equally divided among the three sisters of the deceased: Lydia, Catherine, and Fanny Glimanhaga. They are to hold it for life and upon the death of one the others are to inherit her share. After they are all dead, the estate is to be equally divided between Mary A. Kitson, the daughter of Barbara Sheezley, a sister of the deceased and the three children of Adam Glimanhaga. No estimate of the value of the estate is given in the document.[50]

1908 (May 9). GLIMANHAGE. On April 24, 1908, in Elkhart Co., Ind., of lingering disease, Sister Lydia Glimanhage, passed away; aged 65 y. 10m. 22d. She was born June 2, 1842. The family emigrated to Indiana from Canada in the early settlements of Elkhart county. She was the third member of this family that was called away by death within the past four years, and one of four sisters and one brother who all lived unmarried on the old homestead where the parents lived and died. Two sisters, both in feeble health, survive. One married brother and one married sister have also passed away in the years past. Funeral services were held on Sunday, Apr. 26, at the Yellow Creek M. H., where services were conducted by John F. Funk and Jonas Loucks from Rev. 7:13-17. The funeral was largely attended.[51]

1908 (June 9). Will Probated. The last will of Lydia Glimanhaga of Harrison township was probated today. The will was drawn August 2, 1904. All property is left to her sisters, Anna, Catherine and Fanny Glimanhaga, during their life, and after their death, the residue passes half to Mary A. Kitson, daughter of Barbara Shetzley nee Glimanhaga, and half to Mary C. Shine, Esther Rellinger and Orville and Gertrude Canen, children of the late Edith Glimanhaga Canen. Aaron S. Sensennich is named executor.[52]

1908 (Nov 19). TO QUIET TITLE. In the Circuit Court of Elkhart County, State of Indiana, ss: DECEMBER 1908 TERM. FANNY GLIMANHAGA, CATHARINE GLIMENHAGA vs. MICHAEL MILLER, —– MILLER, whose christian name is unknown, wife or widow, as the case maybe, of Michael Miller, deceased. The unknown heirs, legatees, devisees of Michael Miller, deceased. [Cause No. 12266 Quiet Title]. Be it known, That on this 16th day of November in the year 1908 the above name plaintiffs by their attorneys, filed in the office of the Clerk of the Elkhart Circuit Court a complaint against said defendants in the above entitled cause, together with an affidavit of a competent person, that the plaintiffs have a meritorious cause of action against said defendants to quiet title to real estate and that the defendants, Michael Miller, —– Miller, whose Christian name is unknown, wife or widow, as the case may be of Michael Miller, deceased, the unknown heirs, legatees and devisees of said Michael Miller, deceased are not residents of the state of Indiana. Said defendants are therefore hereby notified of the filing and pendency of said complaint against them and unless they appear and answer or demur thereto at the calling of said cause on the 11th day of January 1909, the same being the 25th Judicial day of the December 1908 term of said court to be begun and held at the Court House in Goshen, on the 2nd Monday in December next: said complaint and the matters and things therein contained and alleged, will be heard and determined in their absence. GEO. W. FLEMING, Clerk Elkhart Circuit Cours. Chas. O. Betchtel, Davis & Shaefer l Attorneys for plaintiff.[53]

1909 (Apr 30). …That the assessments against said lands in Harrison, Concord and Olive Townships in Elkhart County, Indiana, are as follows, to-wit: Glymenhaga, Fannie, Anna, Lydia and Catherine….$50.00.[54]

1910 (Apr 7). Wakarusa Plays a Conspicuous Part in the Civil War When Volunteers are Called. Those Who Never Returned, Killed in Battle, Died in Hospitals and Prisons or of Wounds: Michael Glimenhaga 74th Ind. [Note: Died Mar. 19, 1863 Murfreesboro, Rutherford County Tennessee, USA][55]

1911 (Feb 13). Noah S. Hoover has been appointed guardian for Fannie and Catherine Glimenhaga, owners of 160 acres of land near Wakarusa, and alleged to be incompetent to manage it.[56]

1911 (Feb 28). Noah S. Yoder refused to qualify as guardian for Fannie and Catherine Glimanhaga and Ira S. Burns was appointed today.[57]

1911 (Mar 9). Irvin E. Burns, guardian of Fannie and Catherine Glimanhaga, who early in the term were declared of unsound mind, this morning filed an inventory of their personal property, the value of which was fixed at $150. Rentals from their real estate he found were bringing in $123.60 per year.[58]

1912 (Jul 4) Anna Hartman, Susan Hetrick and Mrs. I. S. Burns were cleaning house for the Glimanhaga sisters several days last week.[59]

1916 (Sep 13). Irvin S. Burns, rural route No. 5, Goshen, guardian of Fannie Glimanhaga and Catherine Glimanhaga, unsound, filed his resignation and final report, which were accepted and approved.[60] [61]

1916 (Sep 21). Joseph Loucks was today granted letters as guardian of Fannie and Catherine Glimanhaga, filling a bond of $1,500.[62]

1917 (Jan 4). GLIMANHAGA. Veronica (or Fannie) Glimanhaga was born in Ontario, Feb. 2, 1835; died in Elkhart Co., Ind., Dec. 13, 1916; aged 81 y. 10 m. 11 d. She leaves to mourn her departure a sister and other relatives. She with the surviving sister lived together for many years on the farm where she died. She had been in feeble health for years. She united with the Mennonite Church over fifty years ago and remained faithful to the end. Funeral services were conducted at the Yellow Creek Church on Dec. 16, by Jacob K. Bixler from the text II Cor. 5:1.[63]

1917 (Feb 16). WILL IS FILED. The will of Fannie Glimanhaga, who died at her home in Harrison township on December 13, has been filed for probate.[64]

1919 (Jun 24). COURT HEARS ARGUMENTS ON ACTION OF GUARDIAN IN REGARD TO LAND DEAL. The time of the superior court was taken this forenoon with arguments for and against motions to dismiss proceedings in which Fannie and Catherine Glimanhaga are interested. They are wards of John Loucks and were deeded a life interest in a farm for their support. Proceedings have been instituted by others who are interested in the farm to have the conveyance set aside. It was this phase of the controversy that was considered today. Judge Hile took the matter under advisement.[65]

1921 (Feb 17). TWO FARM HOUSES LEVELED BY FIRE. Property Under Litigation Because of Transfer by Guardian Suffers Big Loss. Two large two-story frame houses on what is known as the Glinanhaga farm, seven miles south of Elkhart and just west of the Prairie street road—which property is now in litigation—were completely destroyed by fire, together with their contents, about 5 o’clock yesterday afternoon. The loss is estimated at $5,000, partially covered by insurance. As explained in The Truth a few days ago, the farm, now reduced to 80 acres, was once the property of four spinster sisters—Anna, Lydia, Catherine and Fannie Glinanhaga—and each made a will leaving her interests to the others and finally to Mary Kitson, a niece, and the children of a nephew, Adam Glinenhaga; all the sisters died but Catherine, now 80 years old, and when she was declared of unsound mind Jonas Loucks was appointed guardian; then he, with the court’s approval three years ago, deeded the property to his son-in-law and wife, Ira and Emma Christophel to reimburse them for caring for Catherine during the remainder of her life. Mrs. Kitson et al. recently filed action to set aside the transfer to Christophel, and after the issues were argued two and a half days in the superior court Judge Hile took the case under advisement. The Christophel family has been living in one of the dwellings on the place, and the aged ward has been occupying the other. FIRE STARTED BY SPARKS. About an hour before the discovery of the blaze yesterday, Mr. Christophel returned from Goshen and built a fire in one of the stoves of the house occupied by his family. It is thought sparks from this chimney ignited the roof. The blaze spread so rapidly the family had no time to rescue any of the contents and a high wind quickly carried brands to the other house. It, too, was soon beyond saving. Mrs. Christophel with her five-week-old baby and four other children, and Miss Glinanhaga were taken to the Eli Zimmerman home on an adjoining farm, where they are still stopping. The farm (with its buildings that are now destroyed) was valued at $10,000.[66]

1921 (Feb 28). COURT CALLED TO UNDO TRANSFER. Guardian’s Act in Deeding Ward’s Farm to His Own Kin is Attacked by Relatives. At the conclusion of a trial that occupied the attention of the superior court two and one-half days Judge Hile took under advisement the case of Mary A. Kitson, et al. against Jonas Loucks (guardian of Catherine Glimenhaga) and Ira and Emma Christophel to set aside the conveyance of 80 acres of land in Harrison township, which is valued at $10,000, by Loucks as guardian of Catherine Glimenhaga, to Ira and Emma Christophel, his son-in-law and daughter. The conveyance was to reimburse the last named for caring for Catherine Glimenhaga during the remainder of her lifetime. She was about 75 years old when the conveyance was made. Many irregularities are alleged in the transaction. Some of the preliminaries to the court action are of interest. Anna, Lydia, Catherine and Fannie Glimenhaga, spinsters, owned and lived on the Harrison township farm, originally 120 acres. On August 2, 1904, each made a will granting to her other three sisters her interest in the farm during lifetime, with a provision that after the death of all of then the estate was to go to Mary A. Kitson, a niece, and to the children of Adam Glimenhaga, a nephew. Anna and Lydia Glimenhaga died soon after the wills were drawn. In 1916 Catherine and Fannie Glimenhaga were declared of unsound mind, and Loucks was appointed as their guardian. Fannie died the next year. Just prior to her death Loucks, who is said to be a Mennonite minister and pastor of the church where the petitioners and wards worship, filed a petition for the conveyance of the real estate, subject to an indebtedness of $2,800, but with $500 extra funds to apply on the debt, to his son-in-law and daughter. This later was approved by the court and the transfer took place. Catherine Glimenhaga is now about 80 years old. L.W. Vail of Goshen and Raymer & Olds of this city were retained by the petitioners and Deahl & Deahl and T.A. Davis of Goshen represented the defendants.[67]

1921 (Apr 8). COURT VOIDS ACT OF A GUARDIAN. Orders John Loucks to Undo Conveyance of Ward’s Property to His Own Relatives. In the case of Esther Glimanhaga, Mary Kitson, Mary Shine, Orville Canen and Gertrud Myers against Jonas Loucks, guardian of Fannie and Catherine Glimanhaga, sisters of unsound mind, to set aside a conveyance by Loucks to Ira and Emma Christophel, of 80 acres of Harrison township land owned by his wards, Judge W.B. Hile yesterday made an order setting aside the conveyance and a contract on which the conveyance was based. All orders and decrees made in favor of Loucks as guardian were also set aside. Loucks was given permission to file an amended petition to sell the real estate. The case has been in court four years. The land is valued at $200 an acre. Two houses on the farm burned last fall following the hearing before Judge Hile, entailing a loss off several thousand dollars with but $1,200 insurance. The Christophels have spent several thousand dollars in improvements on the place, and the question of their reimbursement is one that is likely to cause further legal complications, it is said. HISTORY OF THE CASE. Originally there were four unmarried Glimanhaga sisters who owned undivided interests in the farm. They each made a will leaving her interest to the surviving sisters. Two died, leaving Fanny and Catherine owners of the farm. A guardian was appointed to manage their affairs. He resigned and Loucks was appointed. His daughter, Emma, was married to Ira Christophel. Soon after Loucks became guardian he secured from the superior court permission to enter into a contract for the sale of the land. He then sold the land to his son-in-law and a daughter. It was represented to the court, it was charged, that Loucks did not show the relationship of the Christophels to him: neither was it shown that whatever of the property might be left when the sisters were all dead, was to go to residuary legatees, the petitioners. These petitioners are nephews and nieces of the Glimanhaga sisters. It was averred that the petitioners had no notice of the court proceedings and therefore were not bound, and that the contract and conveyance were fraudulent and void and that the guardian had no right to barter the property away. L.W. Vail of Goshen and Raymer & Olds of this city represented the petitioners and Tom Davis and Deahl & Deahl of Goshen represented the guardian and the Chrsitophels.[68]

1921 (May 6). COURT GIVES NEW LEAVE FOR SALE OF GLIMANHAGA FARM. The Glimanhaga guardianship case occupied the attention of Judge W.B. Hile in the superior court again today. It came up this time in the form of a report from Jonas Loucks, guardian of Fannie (now dead) and Catherine Glimanhaga, and in the filing of claims against the estate by him, and by Ira and Anne Christophel, his son-in-law and daughter. A recent decision by the court was that a sale of the 80-acre farm of the Glimanhagas in Harrison township to the Christophels was void because of irregularities and the sale was set aside with permission for the guardian to amend his petition for permission to sell and begin over again. This petition was filed today and along with it was a claim by the guardian for $2,949.12 for money he has expended in paying interest, taxes, etc. The claim of the Christophels is for $6,164.38, and is for money expended in repairs to buildings, the erection of a barn, rebuilding fences, care of Catherine Glimanhaga, etc. Fannie Glimanhaga died in 1916. The two houses on the place were burned last winter. The value of the land is placed at $7,200. The indebtedness, including the claims, is placed at $9,268.21. Permission to sell was granted; bond being fixed at $15,000.[69] [70]

1921 (Dec 15). Judge Hile has announced his decision in the case of Ira and Emma Christophel against the estate of Catherine Glimanhaga to recover the money expended in improvements made on the farm of Miss Glimanhaga and for care of her and an invalid sister. The Christophels asked for $6,167, and the court awards them $4,278.40.[71]

1921 (Dec 15). Court Renders Judgment In Notable Estate Case. Judge Hiles in the superior court yesterday announced his decision in the case of Ira Christophel against the estate of Catherine Glimanhaga to recover for money expended in improvements made on the farm of Miss Glimanhaga and for care of her and an invalid sister. The Christophels asked for $6,167, and the court awards them $4,278.40. The Glimanhaga estate is one of the oldest in the guardianship docket of the superior court and has been the cause of much litigation. It consisted originally of an 80-acre farm in Harrison township on which were two dwelling houses. It was owned by four Glimanhaga sisters, all unmarried. All but Catherine are dead. As the other three sisters one after another died, she left a will in which she bequeathed her undivided share on the estate to her surviving sisters for life with a provision that any portion of her share remaining after the death of the last surviving sister should go to nephews and nieces as residuary legatees. In 1917 conditions had become such at the home of the two sisters then living that neighbors insisted something should be done to see that they were provided for properly. Jonas Loucks of Wakarusa was at that time guardian of the sisters. Testimony at the hearing was that he consulted an attorney who advised him to petition the superior court for permission to sell the farm, pay off any incumberances, and use the remainder of the fund to care for the sisters. This was done and permission was obtained from the court to sell the farm. The petition erroneously set out that the sisters owned the farm in fee simple. Loucks sold the place to his son-in-law and daughter, Mr. and Mrs. Christophel, giving them a guardian’s deed for it which the court approved. The Christophel’s took possession of the place, built a barn on it, improved it in other ways and cared for the Glimanhaga sisters. This they continued to do for four years and four months, the evidence showed. In the meantime one of the sisters died, leaving a will similar to those of the two sisters who had preceded her. In the meantime W.B. Hile had become judge. Attorneys for the residuary legatees brought suit to set aside the deed conveying the farm to the Christophels on the ground that they should have been made parties when the petition was filed for permission to sell the farm but were not made parties, this having had no notice that a sale of real estate in which they had an interest was to be made, Judge Hile set the deed aside. Then came the suit to recover for money spent and for labor in the care of the sisters, with the result as announced by the court yesterday. While these events were transpiring the dwelling houses on the farm burned. Insurance of $1,200 was collected. Through a proper proceeding the farm was sold for $11,700 with which to pay liabilities and for the care of Catherine Glimanhaga as long as she lives. After her death the remainder of the fund will for the residuary legatees, the nephews and nieces, of whom there are four. [72]

1922 (Jan 28). NEW GUARDIAN NAMED. William Everest was appointed guardian for Catherine Glimanhaga, succeeding Jonas Loucks, resigned. Mr. Loucks turned over a balance of $1,394.64 to Mr. Everest, who filed a bond of $2,800.[73]

1924 (Jan 10). GLIMANHAGA. Catherine Glimanhaga, daughter of Moses and Catherine Glimanhaga (pioneers of Harrison Township), was born on the homestead March 11, 1850; died Dec. 26, 1923, in the Mennonite Home for the Aged at Eureka, Ill.; aged 73 y. 9 m. 15 d. She was the youngest of eleven children, and the last of the family to be called by death, having been a faithful member of the Mennonite Church for many years. She lived on the homestead nearly 71 years, after which she made her home with a niece, Mrs. George Rellinger, until Sept. 20, 1923, at which time she entered the Home for the Aged, where she remained until death. The nearest surviving relatives are three nieces, Mrs. George Rellinger, of Elkhart, Ind., Mrs. John Shine of Bangor, Mich., and Mrs. Benjamin Kitson of Syracuse, Ind. She is also survived by many other relatives and friends. Funeral services were held at Yellow Creek Mennonite Church near Goshen, Ind., conducted by J. F. Funk and D. A. Yoder.[74]



[1] Goshen Democrat Wednesday July 03, 1850 – Page 3

[2] The Elkhart Review, Saturday, October 07, 1865, Page-

[3] The Elkhart Review, Thursday, June 02, 1870, Page-

[4] The Elkhart Review, Thursday, April 20, 1871, Page-

[5] The Elkhart Observer, Wednesday, December 30, 1874, Page-2

[6] The Elkhart Evening Review Tuesday, February 16, 1875

[7] The Wakarusa Sun Thursday, July 15, 1875, Page-3

[8] Herald of Truth, Vol. XII (8), August 1875, p. 87

[9] Goshen Times Thursday, January 25, 1883 Page-3

[10] Goshen Times Thursday, October 04, 1883 Page-2

[11] Herald of Truth, Vol. XX (20), October 15, 1883, p. 317

[12] Goshen Times Thursday, October 25, 1883 Page-2

[13] Goshen Times Thursday, November 15, 1883 Page-2

[14] The Elkhart Review, 1884

[15] Goshen Daily News, Thursday, March 18, 1886, Page-1

[16] The Elkhart Review, March 1886

[17] The Elkhart Review, Thursday, September 30, 1886, Page-

[18] Nappanee News Thursday, September 30, 1886 – Page 2

[19] Goshen Times Thursday, July 19, 1888 Page-8

[20] Goshen Times Thursday, September 26, 1889 Page-7

[21] Goshen Weekly News Friday, March 13, 1891 Page-2

[22] Goshen Daily News Tuesday, March 10, 1891

[23] Goshen Democrat Wednesday, March 11, 1891

[24] Goshen Times Thursday, March 12, 1891

[25] Goshen Weekly Truth Thursday, March 12, 1891

[26] Goshen Times Thursday June 4, 1891 – Page 5

[27] Goshen Daily News Friday, October 16, 1891 Page-2

[28] Goshen Weekly News Friday, October 23, 1891

[29] Herald of Truth, Vol. XXVIII (21), November 1, 1891 ­ p. 334, 335.

[30] Herald of Truth , Vol. XXIX, No. 3, February 1, 1892, Page 46

[31] Goshen Times Thursday, January 25, 1894 Page-2

[32] Goshen Democrat Wednesday, January 17, 1894

[33] Goshen Times Thursday, May 10, 1894 Page-2

[34] Herald of Truth, Vol. XXXI, No. 11, June 1, 1894 – pp 174,17

[35] The Elkhart Review, October 31, 1894

[36] Goshen Democrat Wednesday, October 31, 1894

[37] Goshen Times Thursday, November 1, 1894

[38] Nappanee News Thursday, November 8, 1894

[39] The Goshen Times, February 1895

[40] Nappanee News Wednesday, February 20, 1895 Page-5

[41] Goshen Times Thursday, February 21, 1895 Page-8

[42] Herald of Truth, Vol. XXXII (6), March 15, 1895, p. 94, 95

[43] The Elkhart Weekly Review Sunday, May 22, 1904, Page-

[44] The Elkhart Daily Truth Tuesday, May 24, 1904, Page-

[45] Herald of Truth, Vol. XLI, No. 23, June 2, 1904 – pp 183,184

[46] Goshen Weekly News Times Friday, November 18, 1904 Page-1

[47] The Elkhart Daily Review, April 18, 1904

[48] The Elkhart Weekly Review, 1904

[49] The Gospel Witness, Vol. 1 (28), October 11, 1905, p. 224

[50] Goshen Democrat, Tuesday July 24, 1906

[51] Gospel Herald, Vol. I (6), May 9, 1908, p. 95

[52] Goshen Mid Week News Times Tuesday, June 09, 1908 Page-5

[53] Wakarusa Tribune Thursday, October 26, 1916 Page-8

[54] Goshen Mid Week News Times Friday April 30, 1909 – Page 4

[55] Wakarusa Tribune Thursday, April 07, 1910, Page-1

[56] Wakarusa Tribune, Thursday, February 13, 1911, Page-1

[57] The Elkhart Daily Review Friday, February 28, 1911, Page-4

[58] The Elkhart Truth Thursday March 9, 1911, Page-1

[59] Wakarusa Tribune Thursday, July 04, 1912 Page-4

[60] The Elkhart Truth Wednesday, September 13, 1916, Page-4

[61] The Elkhart Daily Review, Wednesday, September 13, 1916, Page-5

[62] The Elkhart Daily Review Thursday, September 21, 1916, Page-4

[63] Gospel Herald, Vol. IX (40), January 4, 1917, p. 734, 735.

[64] Goshen Weekly News Times Friday, February 16, 1917 Page-2

[65] The Elkhart Truth Tuesday, June 24, 1919, Page-4

[66] The Elkhart Truth Thursday, February 17, 1921, Page-1

[67] The Elkhart Truth Saturday, February 28, 1921, Page-3

[68] The Elkhart Truth Thursday, April 28, 1921, Page-6

[69] The Elkhart Truth, Friday, May 06, 1921, Page-2

[70] Wakarusa Tribune Thursday, May 12, 1921 Page-1

[71] Wakarusa Tribune Thursday, December 15, 1921 Page-5

[72] The Elkhart Truth, Friday, December 09, 1921, Page-10

[73] The Elkhart Truth Thursday, January 28, 1922, Page-2

[74] Gospel Herald, Vol. XVI (41), January 10, 1924, p. 844, 845.


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CLIMENHAGA Family Reunion 1932

I was reminded of this wonderful family photograph this week after learning of the passing of Reta (Philp) Carrigan, a descendant of Benjamin Climenhaga, who was kind enough to share it with me. It is a family reunion of the descendants of Benjamin Climenhaga that occurred in 1932 at the home of his son Emerson Climenhaga.

Climenhaga family reunion 1932

Top row (L to R) – Olive Philp, Emily (Ruegg) Saylor w/son Robert, Dorothy (Philp) Main, Mildred Climenhaga, Marion Climenhaga w/dau Doris, Daniel Climenhaga w/son Arden, Dale Climenhaga, Ruth Carver w/dau Shirley, Lottie (Climenhaga) Asper w/dau Barbara, Catherine Climenhaga, Bert Climenhaga.

Middle Row (L to R) – Ernest Climenhaga w/son Lloyd, Emerson Climenhaga, Benjamin Climenhaga, Esther (Climenhaga) Philp, Claude Philp w/dau Patricia, Glen Climenhaga w/dau Shirley, John Emerson Ruegg w/son Lorne, Gladys Climenhaga.

Bottom Row (L to R) – Arthur Climenhaga, Emerson Climenhage*, Leona Carver, Helen Saylor, Evelyn Carver, Mary Lou Asper, Alice Climenhaga, Paul Ruegg, Howard Ruegg, Rosena Carver.

Posted in Asper, Carver, Climenhaga, Family photos, Main, Philp, Ruegg, Saylor | 3 Comments

Regarding Catherine DAMUDE

Question MarkIn Henry Climenhagen’s will the name of his wife is given as “Barbary,”[1] a common Germanic form of Barbara. But, if you look at any given genealogy source pertaining to the Climenhaga and Climenhage family trees, chances are you will find Catherine Damude named as the wife of Henry Climenhagen. This is a reasonable assertion given that some Damude family members did settle in Bertie and Thorold Townships. Yet, as argued below, there does not appear to be any evidence to support the assertion that Catherine was the wife of the Climenhag* patriarch. Even more striking, there is no clear evidence to indicate that she ever existed. In what follows I ask a series of questions and attempt to offer evidence to support my conclusion that Catherine Damude was not the wife of Henry Climenhagen.

What is claimed about Catherine Damude?

According to various genealogical sources, Catherine Damude is assumed to be a sister, or half-sister, of Henry, David, and Samuel[2] Damude (also spelled Deamud, Deamude, Demuth, Damewood, etc.) who hailed from Bucks County, Pennsylvania. These brothers may have been born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, near to Rapho or Lampeter Townships. It is said that Catherine was born in Rapho Township, and that she and Henry Climenhagen were married in Baltimore, Maryland sometime before 1793. It is known that the couple later moved to Upper Canada with their two children.

What is known about the Damude brothers?

There are a number of written accounts of the Damude brother’s arrival in Upper Canada. Much of what we know about this Damude family comes from a detailed account by Anna Elizabeth Damude, granddaughter of Henry Damude, in her description of the arrival of the Damude family in Upper Canada as found in “a History of the Brethren in Christ Church” by Asa W. Climenhaga (Anna was Asa’s first cousin twice removed):

“Henry Damude and his two half brothers, Samuel and David, came from Pennsylvania the same year, and went back and then came in again the next year, bringing with them another span of horses. Some of their horses died with Yellow Malaria from lack of hay. Anna Winger came the same year that Henry Damude came to stay. In her party there were her sister, Mrs. Sider and husband, and her brother, Hounsley Winger, and a large number of neighbors. They were United Empire Loyalists. Although they were Tunkards, they were loyal in spirit to their Sovereign, and though they could not fight, they would not live under the United States flag. Henry Damude came from Bucks County, Pennsylvania; Anna
Winger came from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania…The sister, Mrs. Sider, was married, as was also Hans Winger, before going to Canada.”[3]

The Damudes came to Upper Canada about the same time as the arrival of the Winger/Wenger party which included the Tunker minister Hans (John) Wenger, his wife Mary Eishelmann, and his children, his sister Anna Wenger, Jacob and Mary (Wenger) Seider and family, and the John Groh/Crow family,[4] amongst others.

“With them, the family brought two cows, a yoke of oxen, seeds and the materials necessary for a garden.”[5]

“They arrived at their new home the year before the great famine, and there was no time to store up a food supply. As well, winter’s cold snows overtook them before they could finish their log cabin. [The Damude brothers] made a dugout in the side of the hill and with logs felled over the entrance, there were warm quarters for themselves, as well as quarters for the horses and cattle.” [6]

“After the hurricane about two years, when burning off the pine brush on the fallow, the fire got beyond control and burned up everything. This discouraged them so that they concluded to go back to Pennsylvania, but they took another notion when they got to Black Creek, as they liked the soil there. They decided to settle on a farm by the Black Creek a few miles from the river.” [7]

More information about Henry Damude can be gleaned from other sources regarding the Damude brothers:

“…Henry Damude settled on Lots 153 and 154 in Thorold Township, while his brother David settled in Lowbanks on Lake Erie, where many of his descendants still live today.” [8]

“…[Henry Damude] was a weaver by trade, but after coming to Canada he only worked at weaving during the winter season, his time being fully occupied the remaining months of the year. The first grist mill…was situated at Niagara Falls, a distance of twelve miles from his home. [Henry] used to take a bag of wheat on his back and carry it to this mill…” [9]

We also know that David Deamud lived in Bertie Township for a time, perhaps in the vicinity of Henry Climenhagen and family, at least until 1807—the year his son John was born.[10][11]

Is Catherine Damude a sister to the Damude brothers?

Based on the written descriptions of the arrival of the Damude brothers, and in Anna Elizabeth Damude’s account in particular, there is no mention of a sister. Anna Elizabeth names the three Damude brothers and describes their journey to America. She also gives their family history originating in Switzerland and an account of the religious persecution that prompted her family to leave the old world. However, although no records have been found to link Catherine with the Damude brothers, this does not mean that she was not their sister.

Is there a Damude-Climenhag* family connection?

The Damude family is related to one branch of the Climenhag* family through marriage—that being through Henry Climenhagen’s eldest son Martin. Reverend Martin Climenhaga (1794-1876) was married about 1815 to Elizabeth Damude, the daughter of Henry Damude and Anna Winger (1790-1853), and had four children by this union: Moses, Anna, David, and Martin, Jr. After the death of Henry Climenhagen in 1805, David Deamud may have been influential in helping to raise Henry’s son Martin Climenhaga. It is speculated that David Climenhaga, second son of Martin and Elizabeth (Damude) Climenhaga, may have been the namesake of David Deamud.

Were Henry and Catherine married in Baltimore?

The short answer is probably not. No documents have been found that name the exact year, or place of marriage for Henry Climenhagen and wife. So, why do some sources claim that the couple were married in Maryland? This is where things get a bit tricky. It all comes down to competing theories as to who exactly Henry Climenhagen was. It is commonly agreed that the Climenhag* patriarch was named Johann Henrich Kleimenhagen, and that he hailed from a small village in Waldeck Germany named Ober-Waroldern. Several decades ago a classified ad was discovered dated April of 1789 in which a William Kleimenhagen, who had just arrived in Baltimore Maryland, was searching for his brother John Henry Kleimenhagen who was believed to be living in Baltimore. William soon left the area to live with a farmer in Martic Township, Pennsylvania.[12]

As the Climenhag* patriarch’s name was already known, based on several Upper Canada documents, as Henrich Kleimenhagen, John Henry Kleimenhagen was assumed to be the same Henrich Kleimenhagen who had removed to Upper Canada. Since, from the advertisement, John Henry was assumed to be living in Baltimore, it was an easy assertion that he was also married there. At the time it was not yet known that William Kleimenhagen’s full name was Johann Henrich Wilhelm Kleimenhagen.

It is now believed, by some, that Johann Henrich Wilhelm Kleimenhagen is the real Climenhag* patriarch. As this Henrich Kleimenhagen arrived in 1789 and indentured with a farmer in Martic Township, Lancaster County, PA for  three years (An assumption based on family folklore and typical Pennsylvania contracts of indenture at that time), he would more likely have been married in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, rather than in Maryland.

If you subscribe to the first theory then the story has some merit. John Henry met Catherine Damude before her brothers relocated to Upper Canada in 1788. It makes sense therefore that Henry and wife chose to live, at least for a time, in Maryland, and later Pennsylvania (as eldest child Anna was born there), before immigrating to Upper Canada in 1797.  But, if you instead subscribe to the second theory, the dates and places do no align. First, if the couple were married it is most likely that they were wed in Pennsylvania, having never lived in Maryland. More importantly, as the Damude brothers were settled in Upper Canada in 1788, and Henry Climenhagen arrived in the new world in 1789, it seems more probable that Catherine would have gone with her family and neighbours to Upper Canada the year before Henry’s arrival.

Was Catherine Damude the wife of Henry Climenhagen?

First, as already stated, Henry’s wife is named in his will as “Barbary.” Some have suggested that “Barbary” may have been the middle name of Catherine Damude. As Henry’s will is the only source to name his wife this suggestion can neither be confirmed or denied.

However, other connections, or rather, a lack thereof, call any relationship between Catherine and Henry Climenhagen into question. For instance, an old hand written genealogy by David Climenhaga (1826-1913), a grandson of Henry Climenhagen, and son of Martin Climenhaga and Elizabeth Damude, names his grandparents on his mother’s side as Henry and Anna Damude. Yet, he makes no mention of his grandparents on his father’s side. This suggests that he knew very little about the identity of his Climenhag* grandparents. Putting aside the fact that Catherine Damude is said to be the sister to Henry Damude (which would make Martin Climenhaga and his wife Elizabeth first cousins), if David Climenhaga’s grandmother was a Damude it seems probable that this information would be common knowledge within David’s family. This is especially true since David personally knew his grandfather Henry Damude, and surely would have known that his Damude grandfather and Climenhagen grandmother were siblings. In a letter he wrote to his grandchildren David writes:

“Now I will try to tell the way we went to go to grand­paps. We would try to get ready the day before, then all get in the poor wagon, put in some straw or hay, the hay was always scarce, for there was not much clear land. The cows would run in the bush. We had to go to the Black Creek to Nia­gara River, then along the river to Chipawa, then down to Nia­gara Falls, then down to the Lundy’s Lane, then west to Allan­burgh, then across the canal on a poor bridge, then up on the Can­bory road tilr we could perty nere see grand­paps’ place. Then we would feel glad that we were perty soon there. They had an old house down the big hill that was some 80 feet down. There was grandma and aunts. Their first chil­dren were all most girls. The four old­est were girls. The house was small and poor, but we were sat­is­fied just as we that she would include information ell as now. But poor grandma was an invalid. She had to work hard to make things go. She had a sore on the side that she could not get around, but there the girls could get to the work.” [13]

Another clue is that although Asa Climenhaga and Anna Elizabeth Damude were first cousins twice removed (i.e., Elizabeth (Damude) Climenhaga, David Climenhaga’s mother, and Anna Elizabeth’s father David Damude were both children of Henry and Anna (Wenger) Damude), Anna Elizabeth never mentioned a great aunt named Catherine. Being aware of Asa’s relationship to the Damude family it seems likely that Anna Elizabeth would include this information to him in her family history. As Anna Elizabeth was able to provide a very rich and detailed account of the Damude’s arrival in the new world, as well as the goings-on in the old world and accounts of religious persecutions her ancestors endured, it seems even more likely she would add her great aunt’s information to the story. It may be however that the information was not pertinent to the point Asa was making in his book about Anabaptist history. However, even if Asa chose not to include that information in his book he had a genuine interest in family history and would have surely passed down this vital information to his nieces and nephews. Yet, in all his writings about the family history the Christian name of the Climenhag* family matriarch is never mentioned.

What can we conclude about Catherine Damude?

Based on extensive record searches over an approximate 30 year span (my own and other researchers), no evidence has been discovered of a Catherine Damude living in Bertie Township, Upper Canada, or in Lancaster or Buck’s counties in Pennsylvania, during this time period. In fact, another family researcher, David C. Climenhage, looked extensively for late 18th and early 19th century records for Catherine Damude. Although he personally visited the Lancaster and Bucks counties archives he found no evidence pertaining to Catherine Damude.

However, we must err on the side of caution. Simply because no records have been found for Catherine Damude does not mean that she did not exist. Still, the lack of evidence is puzzling. Furthermore, the story of Catherine Damude appears to have been built up over time with one piece added here and another piece added there. As Sherlock Holmes was fond of saying, “’It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data. Insensibly one begins to twist facts to suit theories, instead of theories to suit facts.”[14] To me, it appears that some mistakes were made early on as to the identification of the Climenhag* matriarch. And, rather than reinterpret the data in light of the facts, or lack thereof, facts were twisted to suit the theory.

At present, I am inclined to believe that this particular Catherine Damude, as named above, never existed. But, if new evidence does present itself that clearly implicates a Damude (sister or otherwise) as the Climenhag* matriarch I will readily incorporate that information into the Climenhag* family narrative. As yet, I have seen none.

Updated 3 Apr 2015

Footnotes    ((↵) returns to text)
  1. Estate file for Henry Cli­men­hagen, pro­bated June 7, 1805, Lin­coln County Sur­ro­gate Court estate files, RG 22-A35, Micro­film MS 8408, Archives of Ontario. [In his will Henry states, “…I give and bequeath unto Bar­bery my beloved wife all my lands that I now pos­sess and all my mov­ables goods and chat­tels as long as she remains my wife…”](↵)
  2. On 27 Feb 1815 Henry Damewood affirmed before Amos Chapman J. P. that his brother Samuel Damewood left this Province four and twenty years ago and to the best of his knowledge is residing in Maryland in the United States of America and that he has not left any children in this country. Signed Henry Damwood. (Thorold Township Papers 0396)(↵)
  3. Climenhaga, Asa Winger. History of the Brethren in Christ Church. Nappanee, IN. E.V. Publishing House, pp. 93-94.(↵)
  4. Nigh, Harold. The lost tribes of the Niagara plain folk. Mennonite Historical Society of Ontario, Vol. 4, 1986. (↵)
  5. Betti, M. Township of Thorold, 1793-1967 : Centennial project of the Township of Thorold. Toronto, ON: Armath Associates, 1967, p. 160-164.(↵)
  6. Ibid.(↵)
  7. Climenhaga, Asa. History of the Brethren in Christ Church.(↵)
  8. On 2 Jan 1795 Henry Damwood aged 32, born in Pennsylvania, weaver appeared before John Small and took the prescribed oaths and was recommended for a grant of two hundred acres of land. On the same date Acting Surveyor General D. W. Smith assigned to him two hundred acres in Lots 153 and 154 Thorold Twp. (Thorold Township Papers 0359)(↵)
  9. Biographical Sketches section of the History of Welland County Ontario. Welland, ON: Welland Tribune Printing House, 1887.(↵)
  10. Archives of Ontario; Series: MS935; Reel: 27. Ontario, Canada, Deaths, 1869-1938 and Deaths Overseas, 1939-1947 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2010. [John Deamud, son of David, died 13 June 1881 at the age of 77 years. On his death notice his place of birth is named as “Bertie township Ont.” As his age indicates he was born abt 1804].(↵)
  11. Archives of Ontario; Series: MS935; Reel: 21. Ontario, Canada, Deaths, 1869-1938 and Deaths Overseas, 1939-1947 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2010. [David Junior, son of David Deamud, died in Sherbrook 12 July 1879 at the age of 72. His place of birth is named as Bertie, Ontario. He would have been born abt 1807.(↵)
  12. William Kleimen­hagen Ad/Classified, Mary­land Jour­nal, 10 Apr 1789, , News; dig­i­tal images, ( 30 March 2012), cit­ing orig­i­nal.(↵)
  13. Sider, Harold & Sider, Ron. Two hun­dred years with the Siders. Erin, ON. Boston Mills Press, 1986, pp. 29–30.(↵)
  14. Conon Doyle, Arthur. A scandal in Bohemia. The Strand Magazine, 1891.(↵)
Posted in Damude, Deamud, Henry Climenhagen | 1 Comment

Abraham CLIMENHEGG (1800-1835): Chippewa General Store Ledger, 1835

1835_Chippawa_05Henrich Kleimenhagen had five children. His fourth child and third son, Abraham, was born 13 August 1800 at Bertie Township, Lincoln County, Ontario.[1] He was probably the namesake of Abraham Beam, a friend of his father’s, who had died the previous year. In March of 1825, Abraham (Climenhegg) inherited part of his father’s estate being Lot 13, Concession 9 in Bertie Township,[2] just east of his brother Martin Climenhaga’s farm. That same year he married Mary Ann Zimmerman, 22 November 1825, at Stamford Township.[3] The couple had four children, namely Nathaniel, Susannah, Abraham, and Mary before Abraham Sr. died 16 December 1835[4]. Because Abraham died so young we know very little about him.

Thanks to the Niagara branch of the Ontario Genealogical Society we now know a little more about this man. The OGS of Niagara has made available a ledger from a general store that did business in Chippewa, Ontario with records from 1815, 1835, and 1850. An account for Abraham is found in this ledger and lists items he purchased beginning in January of 1835 until his death. The items are transcribed below.

1835 Abraham Climenhaga Cr & Dr
  Province Currency    
Jany 5th To 2˶14˶ 8¼ & By 2˶17˶6   2˶17˶6 2 14
May 27 To Weight of his Butter Keg 14lb 7½   ˶ 8 9
  By cash in full   5˶11½      
  To 3¾ yards Bombazette 1/7   5 11¼
  “ a Ball Cotton thread    
July 1 “ ¼ lb Young Hyson Tea 51   1 3
  “ a Grass Scythe     5
13 “ ½ pound Indigo 7/6   3 9
  “ 1 Yard Brown Cotton      
17 “ a paper Pins       9
August 1 “ a hair Combe       5
  “ ½ Pound Young Hyson Tea 51   2 6
  “ ¾ Yard Apron Cloth (?) 1/3     11¼
  “ a Cotton Handkf     1 7
  “ ½ Pound Indigo 7/6   3 9
  By a Keg Butter Grass 83 lb   1 6
  Keg Weighs 14 lb        
  For Accnt 69 lb7¼ 2˶3˶1½ 16 7
  To Cash in Full 16/7        
1836 Widow Mary Climenhaga do   2˶3˶1½ 2 3

A number of items stand out in the list and may suggest that Abraham was a weaver. For example, Abraham purchased a number of yards of “bombazette,” which is a thin woollen type of cloth, plain or twilled, that came in various colours. [5] He also purchased another type of cloth, as well as balls of cotton thread. Accompanying these purchases were pins, believed to hold material in place, and indigo, a naturally occurring blue dye made from plants. I am not very familiar with weaving practices at the turn of the 19th century. Perhaps the amount of material purchased wasn’t sufficient for a weaving trade? More research is needed to answer this question.

Some simple household items are also found in the ledger such as a hair comb, and a handkerchief. Other items give us some insight into his family’s simple diet, such as butter and green tea. Young Hyson tea was grown in China and was considered a high quality green tea. It was apparently golden in color, and had a full-bodied, pungent taste.[6]

The purchase of a grass scythe suggests that he was able bodied at the time of purchase in July of 1835. Abraham’s final purchase was in August of that year. It is difficult to know if this was a typical slow down of work during the Fall season, or if it signified a growing illness, and perhaps an inability to work. Like his father, and his grandfather before, Abraham died a relatively young man. In December of 1835 he was buried near to his father in Winger cemetery (present Black Creek Pioneer cemetery). Although the “Climenhegg” spelling no longer survives, his many descendants endure to this day.

Footnotes    ((↵) returns to text)
  1. Denise d’Etremont & William Stevens. A genealogical reference for the monument inscription of Black Creek Pioneer Cemetery OGS #4622. Ontario Genealogical Society, 1989 [Calculated from grave marker: 35 y’s 4 mo 3d](↵)
  2. On 12 March 1825 (Reg 24 May 1825) Mar­tin Cli­men­hagen, Moses Cli­men­hagen, Henry Cli­men­hagen, Anna Sider wife of John Cider sons & daugh­ter of Henry Cli­men­hagen deceased sold to Abra­ham Cli­men­hagen 100 acres in Lot No 13 Con­ces­sion 9 from the Nia­gara River, Bertie Twp. for 5 shillings (A295 #6629).(↵)
  3. Ontario History (Vol. 5-8). Krause Reprint Co., 1904, p. 206.(↵)
  4. d’Etremont, A genealogical reference, 1989. (↵)
  5. Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary. C. & G. Merriam Co., 1913.(↵)
  6. Rosen, Diana. Teas of yore: Bohea, Hyson and Congou, nd.(↵)
Posted in Climenhegg, Zimmerman | Leave a comment